null vs undefined in Javascript

What are the differences between these two seemingly interchangeable constructs?

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What Is null?

I like to think of null as an intentional absence of value. A null value must be assigned as it is not the default state for any variable type.

const val = null;

console.log(val); // null

What Is undefined?

undefined is most commonly used to indicate that a value is absent unintentionally. Variables that are declared (but not defined) are given an undefined value.

let val;

console.log(val); // undefined

Note that we are declaring the variable with let instead of const. This is because const declarations must be accompanied by an assignment. In other words, const declarations are invalid and they are better referred to as const definitions.

We can also set a variable to undefined. However, this may not be ideal since null is better suited for setting a variable to "empty".

const val = undefined;

console.log(val); // undefined

Furthermore, similar to undefined variables, nonexistent object properties and out of bound array indices will result in undefiend.

const obj = {};

console.log(obj.val); // undefined

const arr = [];

console.log(arr[0]); // undefined

Checking for null or undefined

A simple comparison will suffice for checking for a null or undefined value.

if (val === null) {}

if (val === undefined) {}

We can also use a loose comparison (==) to check for either because they are both a falsy value.

console.log(null == undefined); // true

console.log(null === undefined); // false - see next section!

Furthermore, because both values are falsy, a simple ! check will do as well:

if (!val) {} // Will check for both null and undefined


Both null and undefined are actually their own types.

This is why a strict comparison fails - it checks the types first.

console.log(typeof null); // "object"

console.log(typeof undefined); // "undefined"

console.log(null === undefined); // false

Yes, the type of null is actually an object. This is in the JavaScript specifications but some industry experts have pointed out that this is a mistake in the language's design. Either way, that is just the way it is as of now.

A Pragmatic Example

Say we have the following function:

function greet(greeting = 'hi') {

The above function accepts an argument but defaults it to hi if one is not supplied by the callee.

Let's see what happens when we invoke it in various ways:

greet(); // hi

greet('HELLO'); // HELLO

greet(null); // null

greet(undefined); // hi

Default arguments will be applied when an undefined value is passed in but null does not have the same effect. This aligns with my statement that null is an intentional absence of value. In this case, we are intentionally telling the function that we want the argument to be empty.

Closing Thoughts

The idea that null relates to intentionality reminds me of API calls that return an empty array instead of some "undefined" value when there are no results.

We are always looking for clues in code and the correct usage of null and undefined will help convey your intentions to future developers (maybe yourself)!

Copyright © 2017 - 2018 David Tran